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In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia PAH , prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia PIN , and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination.

Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios OR for prostate cancer for each histological area. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou Pap smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

Pap smears of women were examined from January to June Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan. Objective To research the correlation between cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesion with the imbalance of vaginal microenvironment.

Methods A total of outpatients were assigned into two groups,of which women diagnosed with cervical cancer or squamous intraepithelial lesion by pathology were selected as experimental group,and the other women without cervical lesions were selected as control group. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone LLETZ.

Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse HSIL , less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at days.

Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

One lesion , one virus: Richel, Olivier; Quint, Koen D. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia AIN is present in many human immunodeficiency virus HIV -positive men who have sex with men. The major etiologic factor is infection with an oncogenic human papillomavirus HPV genotype. We investigated whether individual components of high-grade AIN are.

Full Text Available Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified P lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial e. Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy.

Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices EEM , supernatant fluorescence decay measured under nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with nm laser light were analyzed.

The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening. To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [ HSIL ] and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions ; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes HR-HPV in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection.

Prospective-longitudinal study May December Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Human papillomavirus HPV persistence and HPV 31 predict the risk of recurrence in high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia vaginal HSIL represents an uncommon entity. Here, we sought to identify predictors for recurrence and risk factor for developing genital cancers after primary treatment for vaginal HSIL.

Disease-free interval and the risk of developing HPV-related gynecological cancers were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, 77 patients were included. After a mean SD follow-up of Additionally, patients who had LASER ablation experienced a trend toward a lower risk of recurrence in comparison to medical treatment HR: Considering the occurrence of HPV-related gynecological cancers, we observed that no factors independently correlated with this risk; while, a trend towards higher risk was observed for women with HIV infection HR: Patients affected by vaginal HSIL experienced a relatively high risk of recurrence.

Persistence of HPV after treatment and pretreatment HPV infection predicts for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia recurrence. Further investigations are warranted in order to corroborate our data. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus HPV is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions.

The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. The most prevalent HPV type were: This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines.

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The association of human papillomavirus HPV types to neoplastic lesions increase as a function of their oncogenicity and the duration of the infection since lesion severity progresses from low-grade to high-grade and cancer. In an outbreak, the prevalence of the HPV type involved would increase and the proportion of the associated low-grade lesions would predominate over severe lesions. The highest prevalence HR-HPV prevalence was Around half of the infections are by one viral type and the rest by types.

TP53 mutations in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and concurrent pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma—evidence supporting the clonal relationship of the two lesions. In addition, we correlated the mutational data with p53 immunostaining to determine the role of p53 immunoreactivity as a surrogate for TP53 mutations in histological diagnosis. In this regard, it is important to appreciate the significance of different staining patterns. Specifically, strong diffuse staining correlates with a missense mutation, whereas complete absence of staining correlates with null mutations.

TP53 mutations in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and concurrent pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma--evidence supporting the clonal relationship of the two lesions. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas STICs have been proposed to be the most likely precursor of ovarian, tubal and 'primary peritoneal' pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma HGSC.

Management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix with human papilloma virus infection among young women aged less than 25 years. A multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out at three academic hospitals involving 40, Korean women who underwent cervical cancer screening with cytology and HPV testing with or without subsequent colposcopic biopsies between January and December Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management.

Three-tier data correlation was not found for the other assays examined. Virologic versus cytologic triage of women with equivocal Pap smears: The appropriate management of women with minor cytologic lesions in their cervix is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of human papillomavirus HPV DNA testing as an alternative to repeat cytology in women who had equivocal results on a previous Pap smear. Data were extracted from articles published between and that contained results of virologic and cytologic testing followed by colposcopically directed biopsy in women with an index smear showing atypical cells of undetermined significance ASCUS.

Nine, seven, and two studies also documented the accuracy of repeat cytology when the cutoff for abnormal cytology was set at a threshold of ASCUS or worse, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion LSIL or worse, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion HSIL or worse, respectively. Random-effects models were used for pooling of accuracy parameters in case of interstudy heterogeneity. Differences in accuracy were assessed by pooling the ratio of the sensitivity or specificity of HPV testing to that of repeat cytology. The sensitivity and specificity were Sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology at a threshold for abnormal cytology of ASCUS or worse was Repeat cytology that used higher cytologic thresholds yielded substantially lower sensitivity but higher specificity than triage with the Hybrid Capture II assay.

The ratio of the sensitivity of the Hybrid Capture II. Murine HPV16 E7-expressing transgenic skin effectively emulates the cellular and molecular features of human high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Persistence of infection s in immunocompetent patients may reflect induction of local immunosuppressive mechanisms by HPV, providing a target for therapeutic intervention. We have proposed that a mouse, expressing HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a Keratin 14 promoter K14E7 mice, and which develops epithelial hyperplasia, may assist with understanding local immune suppression mechanisms that support persistence of HPV oncogene-induced epithelial hyperplasia.

K14E7 skin grafts recruit immune cells from immunocompetent hosts, but consistently fail to be rejected. Here, we review the literature on HPV-associated local immunoregulation, and compare the findings with published observations on the K14E7 transgenic murine model, including comparison of the transcriptome of human HPV-infected pre-malignancies with that of murine K14E7 transgenic skin. We argue from the similarity of i the literature findings and ii the transcriptome profiles that murine K14E7 transgenic skin recapitulates the cellular and secreted protein profiles of high-grade HPV-associated lesions in human subjects.

We propose that the K14E7 mouse may be an appropriate model to further study the immunoregulatory effects of HPV E7 expression, and can facilitate development and testing of therapeutic vaccines. Declining prevalence of cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix among women living with well-controlled HIV - Most women living with HIV do not need annual PAP smear screening. We analysed the results of our annual PAP smear screening program to identify low-risk subgroups for less rigorous screening.

The study comprised women followed at the Helsinki University Hospital , with a total of PAP smear results. We analyzed the temporal changes in PAP smear findings. Logistic regression analysis for binominal dependent variables was used for assessing risk factors for ever having cytological squamous intraepithelial lesions hereafter referred as SIL using generalized estimating equations taking into account multiple observations of each patient. Most women had well-controlled HIV, especially towards the end of the study.

PAP smear results improved substantially. At the time of each individual's last PAP smear, Conversely, the rate of SIL decreased from In multivariate analysis the risk of SIL was significantly lower in women with consecutive normal PAP smear findings during the first two years of follow up [odds ratio OR 0. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias CIN represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

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The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN.

A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia.

Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells. Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation.

Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. Knowing the influence of age and the etiological agents for sexually transmitted diseases on the risk of developing low and high grade intraepithelial lesions. Cross sectional prevalence study at a public referral center for cervical cancer. We studied records of women with atypical diagnoses of undetermined significance, in The prevalence of intraepithelial lesions was The prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ASCUS was Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions.

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A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings. HPV was found the most common type The HPV was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

Serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia: The concept and its application. In recent years it has become clear that many extra-uterine pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas serous carcinomas are preceded by a precursor lesion in the distal fallopian tube. Precursors range from small self-limited 'p53 signatures' to expansile serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms that. HGSCs frequently arise in the distal fallopian tubes rather than the ovary, developing from small precursor lesions called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas TICs or more specifically STICs.

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While STICs have been reported to harbor TP53 mutations, detailed molecular characterizations of these lesions are lacking. NGS also demonstrated unexpected relationships between presumed STICs and synchronous carcinomas, suggesting potential diagnostic and translational research applications. Presence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions among women deprived of their liberty: Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the results of the Pap smears of women deprived of their liberty.

The frequencies of samples with atypical cells presented rates of 4. The importance of screening for cervical cancer in female prisons was highlighted, as well as the inclusion of the nurse in this environment, ensuring individualized, quality care for women deprived of their liberty. El objetivo fue analizar los resultados de la prueba de Papanicolaou de mujeres privadas de libertad.

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women all over the world, and main cause is persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus HPV strains. It has been reported that the distribution and prevalence of HPV types varies by geographical region, so that this is important for prevention by type-specific vaccines. Among the samples from females ranging from 20 to 69 years, mean age While HPV infection is the major etiological factor for cervical cancer, presence was relatively low in our survey.

In the positive cases, however, HPV18 was the most common in line with many other populations. The fact that types vary among different populations must clearly be taken into account in design of vaccines for our country. Creative Commons Attribution License. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: Certain types of human papillomaviruses HPV are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer.

Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions , follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative Precursors range from small self-limited 'p53 signatures' to expansile serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms that include both serous tubal epithelial proliferations or lesions of uncertain significance and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas.

These precursors can be considered from three perspectives. The first is biologic underpinnings, which are multifactorial, and include the intersection of DNA damage with Tp53 mutations and disturbances in transcriptional regulation that increase with age. The second perspective is the morphologic discovery and classification of intraepithelial neoplasms that are intercepted early in their natural history, either incidentally or in risk-reduction surgeries for germline mutations.

For the practicing pathologist, as well as the investigators, a distinction between a primary intraepithelial neoplasm and an intramucosal carcinoma must be made to avoid misinterpreting or underestimating the significance of these proliferations. The third perspective is the application of this information to intervention, devising strategies that will actually lower the ovarian cancer death rate by opportunistic salpingectomy, widespread comprehensive genetic screening and early detection.

Central to this issue are the questions of 1 whether some STICs are metastatic, 2 whether lower-grade epithelial proliferations can invade prior to evolving into intraepithelial carcinoma, or 3 metastasize and become malignant elsewhere 'precursor escape'. An important caveat is the persistent and unsettling reality that many high-grade serous carcinomas are not associated with an obvious point of initiation in the fallopian tube.

The pathologist sits squarely in the midst of all of these issues, and has a pivotal role in managing expectations for stemming the death. Richel, Olivier; Hallensleben, Nora D. A systematic comparison between clinical features and the histopathology of suspect lesions is lacking.

Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Photodynamic therapy PDT is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost.

It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions , without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique. The application of human papilloma virus genotyping for the identification of neoplasm lesions in the cervix of women with abnormal cytology smears. A connection between infections with a highly oncogenic type of human papilloma virus and the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer has been proven both experimentally and clinically.

The period after which persistent virus infection will lead to the development of precancerous and invasive lesions is dependent on, among others, the HPV genotype. The oncogenic types of human papilloma virus destabilize the genome of an infected cell and thus initiate the carcinogenesis process. The aim of this work was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes among women with abnormal cytological smears and the correlation of this data with the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia exacerbation.

The sample consisted of 75 women of child-bearing age years old with an abnormal cytological smear and positive test identifying an infection with an oncogenic type of human papilloma virus. In every case histopathological verification, aimed at excluding pathologies in the endocervix, was conducted using a colposcopy with guided biopsy and cervix abrasion.

Through the verification of the cytology results with histopathological diagnosis of the above groups the authors obtained statistically significant differences p human papilloma virus, the authors found that the most common were HPV 31, 45 and Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Matthijs L. The impact of the treatment of precursor lesions of anal cancer anal intraepithelial neoplasia on health-related quality of life has not been investigated.

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of 3 treatment options for anal intraepithelial neoplasia on health-related quality of life and sexual. We analyzed the results and the relations to age, educational level, smoking, contact time with the present partner, age at first intercourse, number of partners, previous sexually transmitted diseases STD, circumcision, peniscopic findings, and female lesion grade. Smoking, contact time with the present partner up to 6 months, and more than one previous sexual partner were associated with HPV lesions p lesion p lesion grade.

Hybrid capture 2 viral load and the 2-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value of a semiquantitative measure of human papillomavirus viral load by the hybrid capture 2 assay for stratification of the risk of histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma. The Atypical Cells of Unknown Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study was a randomized clinical trial of women with 2 years of follow-up to evaluate treatment strategies for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cervical cytologic condition.

The use of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe or carcinoma case definition did not alter our findings. Among women with atypical cells of unknown significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cervical cytologic findings, the hybrid capture 2 viral load measurement did not improve the detection of 2-year cumulative cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma significantly. Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.

So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. It is well known that human papillomaviruses HPV induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population.

The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

High-grade serous carcinoma HGSC is the most prevalent and lethal form of ovarian cancer. HGSCs frequently arise in the distal fallopian tubes rather than the ovary, developing from small precursor lesions called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas TICs, or more specifically, STICs.

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Next-generation sequencing also demonstrated unexpected associations between presumed STICs and synchronous carcinomas, providing evidence that some TICs are actually metastases rather than HGSC precursors. A case report and brief review. A year-old post-menopausal female presented with prolapse and vaginal discharge and underwent a hysterectomy revealing an atrophic endometrium, highly atypical endometrial glands, the lining cells of which showed pseudostratification, hobnailing, a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, and prominent nucleoli.

Since serous EIC is commonly associated with extra-uterine serous carcinoma, it is a uniquely aggressive precursor lesion. Molecular studies support the hypothesis that EIC is a precursor of both uterine and extra-uterine invasive serous carcinomas. This is why the treatment protocol for EIC cases is total abdominal hysterectomy TAH, accompanied by a staging procedure. In our patient, EIC was limited to the endometrium; associated with an excellent clinical outcome.

Tubal epithelial lesions in salpingo-oophorectomy specimens of BRCA-mutation carriers and controls. A precursor lesion for ovarian carcinoma, tubal intraepithelial carcinoma TIC , has been identified in BRCA-mutation carriers undergoing prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy pBSO. Other lesions were also identified in fallopian tubes, but different terminology, interpretation,.

Long-term results of exclusive low-dose rate curie-therapy for a high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. The authors report the results of an exclusive low dose rate curie therapy for female patients treated for a grade 3 vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. They reviewed the medical files of patients treated since , i.

They analysed demographic characteristics, the clinic description of lesions , possible treatments which occurred before this high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, possible previous history of cervical or endometrial cancer, curie therapy detailed data, presence of tumorous relapse. According to that, they conclude that a 60 Gy exclusive low- vaginal dose-rate curie-therapy is an efficient and well tolerated treatment for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Progression and regression of cervical pap test lesions in an urban AIDS clinic in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: Our objective was to evaluate the progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus HIV -positive women during the late antiretroviral era.

Risk factors as well as outcomes after treatment of cancerous or precancerous lesions were examined. This is a longitudinal retrospective review of cervical Pap tests performed on HIV-infected women with an intact cervix between and Subjects needed over two Pap tests for at least 2 years of follow-up. Regression was defined as an initial SIL with two or more subsequent normal Pap tests. Persistence was defined as having an SIL without progression or regression. AGC at enrollment were excluded from progression analysis. Of 1, screened, patients had over two Pap tests for a 2-year period.

Of those, had an intact cervix. Four had AGC at enrollment. The only risk factor associated with progression was CD4 count. Guidelines for HIV-seropositive women who are in care, have improved CD4, and have persistently negative Pap tests could likely lengthen the follow-up interval. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.

In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The potential controls case: In total, cases and controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.

Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during. To assess the association between conservative management of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and recurrence rates and age groups. Cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical observational study of women aged 15 to 76 with abnormal Pap smears attending a public reference. Reconstituting development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia from primary human pancreas duct cells.

Lee, Jonghyeob; Snyder, Emily R. Development of systems that reconstitute hallmark features of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia PanINs , the precursor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, could generate new strategies for early diagnosis and intervention. However, human cell-based PanIN models with defined mutations are unavailable. Here, we report that genetic modification of primary human pancreatic cells leads to development of lesions resembling native human PanINs.

Primary human pancreas duct cells harbouring Mutational spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia in pancreatic heterotopia. Heterotopic pancreatic parenchyma recapitulates the normal pancreas in extrapancreatic locations and, on rare occasions, can even give rise to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The genetic signatures of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions are well characterized. We explored the genetic alterations in precursor lesions intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms [IPMN], pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [PanIN] in patients with pancreatic heterotopias but without concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

This allowed us to determine whether the stereotypical dysplasia--infiltrating carcinoma sequence also occurs in these extrapancreatic foci. Seven cases of heterotopic pancreas with ductal precursor lesions were identified. Neoplastic epithelium was microdissected and genomic DNA was extracted. No mutations were identified in our heterotopic PanINs. One of the possible mechanisms for the development of dysplasia in these lesions is field effect. At the time of these resections, there was no clinical or pathologic evidence of a prior or concomitant pancreatic lesion.

However, a clinically undetectable lesion is theoretically possible. Therefore, although a field effect cannot be excluded, there was no evidence for it in this study. Significance of micronucleus in cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma. MN scoring on the epithelial cells of cervix could be used as a biomarker in cancer screening. This is an easy, simple, reliable, reproducible and objective test which can be performed on routinely stained pap smears. Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon Infection with high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus HPV such as HPVs 16 and 18 is the main cause of cervical cancer.

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplex virus 2 HSV 2 , Treponema pallidum and some sexual behaviour on malignant progression of A cross sectional study was conducted in a hospital in Central Kenya, Kiambu district. Although some studies suggest. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus HPV infection. Photodynamic therapy PDT is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment.

The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique. Effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. To assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment delivered by general practitioners in primary care settings, as part of a screen-and-treat approach for cervical cancer prevention.

Women aged between 25 and 49 years residing in San Martin, Peru, who were positive on visual inspection screening were treated, if eligible, with cryotherapy following biopsy. Full Text Available This article deals a phytoclimatic characterization of a mountain massif included in Cantabrian central mountain and dominated by Curavacas peak 2. As starting point are utilized field sampling vegetation plots combining with rainfall and thermal normalized data obtained of the SIGA Service of Agrarian Geographical Information and the data of 25 poles of measurement snow depth EHRIN program.

The data was processed by statistical techniques multivariate and Cluster analysis for modelling the results with a geographical information system. The paper analyse the different abiotic variables altitude, latitude, longitude, aspect, slope or distance to the watershed or to the sea that influence in the distribution of vegetation and its relationships with climatic factors: The results reflect the strengths of bioclimatic, temperature and geomorphologic variables as predicting of the distribution of vegetation.

In addition, corological areas of identified taxa make it possible the classification and characterization of this massif as a eurosiberian- suboceanic type. Full Text Available Dolina Esquerda de les Alzines is the only known site in Garraf massif where abundant Palaeolithic artifacts have been recovered. However, the chronological framework and technological traits cannot place the site amongst one of the Upper or Middle Palaeolithic tool groups.

Its singularity is in the location, inside a dissolution doline, a rare deposit in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites in Iberian Peninsula. The lithic assemblage is homogenous, 1, artifacts have been analyzed to determine their characteristics and the most significant feature of this assemblage is the dominance of flake-bearing core reduction methods and the manufacture of artifacts showing convergent morphologies. The recovery of some artifacts commonly found in Upper Palaeolithic assemblages should also be stressed. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo.

Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them.

Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection. These petrological facies occur in a zonal arrangement: The various occurrences of mineralizations can be classified in two main groups: In both groups, the ores with the more refractory composition were the first to crystallize in the hotter core of the diapir while those other with a more differentiated composition were formed later within the external zones. The close correlation between petrological and metallogenical roning supports a magmatic origin of the mineralizations related to the petrologic evolution of the mantle bodies.

The former migrated outwards, from the internal part of the bodies, during which marked interaction with the enclosing rocks and complex fractionation processes took place under moderate to low pressure conditions. Rare earth elements REE and yttrium accompany uranium and copper mineralisation within the polymetallic Olympic Dam deposit. The light and heavy rare earths tend to occur in different host minerals.

Most of the light rare earths LREE are present as the essential structural constituents of LREE fluorocarbonates such bastnaesite and synchysite, or in phosphates such as florencite and monazite. Yttrium and the heavy rare earths HREE occur mostly as minor concentrations in the form of cation substitutions within uranium minerals such as uraninite and coffinite, as well as brannerite to a lesser extent. Selective dissolution of uraninite and coffinite during acid leaching leads to the liberation of yttrium and HREE from their host minerals, resulting in higher percentage extractions of HREE than LREE in uranium bearing leach liquors.

LREE liberation is more restricted because only the synchysite dissolves to any significant extent, while bastnaesite is more difficult to dissolve. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits.

Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation.

This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore.

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In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys. In the Au 0. Cell constants, densities, enthalpies, elastic constants and heat capacities are investigated. Calculations are performed in the solid phase. Rafii-Tabar combination rules are used and it is showed that these combination rules are valid for ternary alloys also. Additionally, temperature dependence of mechanical properties of alloys are investigated.

Work, Gender and Protest in Bohemia AB - History Impact factor: Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt.

Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala and magmatic deposits of the Chiney Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye , Luktur and Maylav massifs. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE and mineral assemblages with varying proportions.

It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations Makaryev et al. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins.

The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur and have a hydrothermal origin. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.

Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust.

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Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride. This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles NPs.

The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride.

The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Influence of Ag Content. Full Text Available This paper describes the application of glassy carbon modified electrodes bearing Aux-Agy nanoparticles to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. In particular, the paper shows the influence of the Ag content on this oxidation process.

A simple method was applied to prepare the nanoparticles, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. These nanoparticles were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes. The effectiveness of these electrodes for electrochemical glucose oxidation was evaluated.

The modified glassy carbon electrodes are highly sensitive to glucose oxidation in alkaline media, which could be attributed to the presence of Aux-Agy nanoparticles on the electrode surface. The voltammetric results suggest that the glucose oxidation speed is controlled by the glucose diffusion to the electrode surface. These results also show that the catalytic activity of the electrodes depends on the Ag content of the nanoparticles.

Best results were obtained for the AuAg20 nanoparticles modified electrode. This electrode could be used for Gluconic acid GA production. Controlled Living Nanowire Growth: Inspired by the concept of living polymerization reaction, we are able to produce silver—gold—silver nanowires with a precise control over their total length and plasmonic properties by establishing a constant silver deposition rate on the tips of penta-twinned gold nanorods used as seed cores. Consequently, the length of the wires increases linearly in time.

We analyze the spatial distribution and the nature of the plasmons by electron energy loss spectroscopy and obtain excellent agreement between measurements and electromagnetic simulations, clearly demonstrating that the presence of the gold core plays a marginal role, except for relatively short wires or high-energy modes. Full Text Available Olympic Dam is a world-class breccia-hosted iron-oxide copper-gold-uranium ore deposit located in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. The sample suite extends across the deposit and represents different sulfide mineralization styles chalcopyrite-bornite and bornite-chalcocite and breccias of various types, ranging from those dominated by clasts of granite, dykes, and hematite.

GA Institutional research plan: Ion-stimulated gas desorption yields of coated Au , Ag , Pd stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, and palladium-coated LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy XPS.

In addition, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with heavy ions and the consequence of a subsequent venting on the desorption yields of a beam-scrubbed vacuum chamber are described. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au surface covered by Au NHC 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

Influence of the noble metals Pd, Au , Ag in the thermoluminescent signal induced by radiation in the ZrO2. When increasing the use of the ionizing and non ionizing radiations for example, gamma and ultraviolet radiation in different areas of the science and technology, there is necessary to apply more accurate safety measures and to avoid over-exposures that could put in risk the life of workers that manipulate radiation sources, patient that are exposed to this under some medical treatment, as well as materials that undergo intentionally to radiation. Also, the UV radiation that arrives to the earth can cause some damages, to the one to weaken the protector layer of ozone the UV radiation increases that arrives to the earth surface being able to affect the alive beings and the materials.

By this so much the development of new materials able to take a census of in a more accurate way, fields of gamma and UV radiation is becoming necessary. In this sense, this work presents the obtained results when quantifying radiation fields, through the analysis in the thermoluminescent behavior TL induced by the gamma and UV radiation in the zirconium dioxide synthesized by the sol gel method and doped with nanoparticles of Pd, Au and Ag. It is necessary to mention that in reported works in this respect its mention that the zircon has good thermoluminescent sensitivity induced by these radiation types, however it has shown high thermoluminescent instability that is translated in an important lost of the information after the irradiation.

For that through the incorporation of the metallic nanoparticles it was intended to stabilize the TL behavior of zircon. The results showed that the doped zircon has a high sensitivity to the gamma and UV radiation. These also show that the ionizing and non ionizing radiation induce a thermoluminescent curve consisting of two TL peaks with maxima located around 65 C and C and that the intensity is increased with the dose, following a lineal behavior in certain interval of dose exposure that is influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles.

Likewise it was observed that the presence of Pd is able to stabilize in more proportion the TL behavior of zircon, regarding the other metals.

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The thermoluminescent behavior of the doped zircon before these radiation types was correlated with the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Finally one can say that the results here obtained increase the probability that the zirconium dioxide, with dopants presence, it can be used as system to quantify fields of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. New data are presented on the geology and composition of volcanic and intrusive rocks of the Orochenka caldera, which is located in the western part of the East Sikhote Alin volcanic belt.

The SHRIMP and ICP MS age of zircons of volcanic and intrusive rocks, respectively, and the composition of the volcanic rocks allow comparison of these complexes with volcanic rocks of the eastern part of the volcanic structure. New data indicate the period of transition between subduction to transform regimes.

Desorption yields for H2, CH4, CO, and CO2, which are of fundamental interest for future accelerator applications, are reported for different stainless steel surface treatments. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, palladium-, and getter-coated LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy XPS. In addition, pressure rise measurements, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with le Low-excited f-, g- and h-states in Au , Ag and Cu observed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the cm -1 region.

A simple approach for the sonochemical loading of Au , Ag and Pd nanoparticle on functionalized MWCNT and subsequent dispersion studies for removal of organic dyes: Artificial neural network and response surface methodology studies. In this study, the artificial neural network ANN and response surface methodology RSM based on central composite design CCD were applied for modeling and optimization of the simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of quinoline yellow QY and eosin B EB.

Initial dyes concentrations, adsorbent mass, sonication time and pH contribution on QY and EB removal percentage were investigated by CCD and replication of experiments at conditions suggested by model has results which statistically are close to experimented data. The ultrasound irradiation is associated with raising mass transfer of process so that small amount of the adsorbent 0. Analysis of experimental data by conventional models is good indication of Langmuir efficiency for fitting and explanation of experimented data.

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The ANN based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm LMA combined of linear transfer function at output layer and tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 20 hidden neurons supply best operation conditions for good prediction of adsorption data. The Cu ore of Ifri is a chalcopyrite stockwork hosted by Cambrian formations and was until now interpreted as a syngenetic massive sulphide deposit. Textural studies highlight two generations of pyrite early Py I and late Py II with respect to the regional deformation.

The chalcopyrite stockwork overprinted Py II, outlining the epigenetic nature of the Cu mineralization. To cite this article: Granitoides asociados a zonas de desgarre: The strike-slip regime was obtained using a mobile rigid basal plate sliding horizontally. Boundary conditions were chosen in order to analyze the influence of different rheologic profiles of the upper crust on the pattern of the intrusion.

Lizio leucogranite of the South Armorican Shear Zone South Brittany, France emphasize that our experiments can explain the geometry of many syntectonic' granites emplaced along strike-slip zones. They further shed some light on mechanisms of pluton intrusion in the upper crust. Los experimentos muestran que: We present a new geological map of the lower Ordovician materials cropping out in the Santa Maria la Real de Nieva Massif. The Ordovician sequence, Fm. The lower unit contains conglomerate with clasts of felsic volcanic rocks at its base, slates, and quartzite with cruziana.

The upper unit is composed by the quartzite and slate, which is considered a regional equivalent of the sequence at the base of the Armorica Full Text Available In the present day research on physical geography, mass and energy budgets are of capital importance. The energy budget in an experimental area requires the previous estimate of the corresponding radiation budget.

In this paper, the obtaining of the components of the radioactive budget is explained for La Castanya Montseny experimental site. Measurements were carried out in October with the field instrumentation provided by the French co-author and under his supervision. Data from the 22nd October is analyzed in detail as an example of model characteristics.

OMZ plagiogranites are related with Cambrian-Ordovician rifting and represent a part of the felsic members of a bimodal magmatic suite and show oceanic plagiogranites affinities. SPZ plagiogranites are related with a Carboniferous volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline suite related with Variscan Orogeny. This is interpreted as a proof of cogenetic origin for SPZ plagiogranites and heterogeneous origin for OMZ plagiogranites, derived from the mix of different sources astenospheric, lithospheric and crustal. The quartz c-axis fabrics measured in the rocks of the high-grade unit of the Cerro Pelado massif northern Sierra de Comechingones, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina allow to deduce a normal-sinistral sense of movement for the south-dipping shear zone separating the diatexite-metatexite domain to the north, from the gneissic terrane to the south.

The crystallographic fabrics also indicate that the activity of this shear zone took place under high-T conditions. The deduced kinematics can account Engineering ultrasmall water-soluble gold and silver nanoclusters for biomedical applications. Volume Issue 5 September pp Three dimensional nano-assemblies of noble metal nanoparticle-infinite coordination polymers as specific oxidase mimetics for degradation of methylene blue without adding any cosubstrate. The present 3D nano-assemblies exhibit highly efficient and specific intrinsic oxidase-like activity even without adding any cosubstrate.

The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide AAO is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated. From single nanowire to double helix.

We report a new type of water-soluble ultrathin Au-Ag alloy nanowire NW , which exhibits unprecedented behavior in a colloidal solution. Upon growth of a thin metal Pd, Pt, or Au layer, the NW winds around itself to give a metallic double helix. We propose that the winding originates from the chirality within the as-synthesized Au-Ag NWs, which were induced to untwist upon metal deposition. The maxillectomy is one of the surgical interventions prescribed for the neoplasms treatment of facial area. This technique involves the resection of maxilla and of some adjacent anatomical structures.

There are many terms defining the types and subtypes of maxillectomy creating confusion. Since there is not only tool and worldwide standardized, nowadays the classification and treatment procedure is still a challenge. In current classification systems of maxillectomy there are authors advocating very radical treatments and other favoring the conservative or partial treatments.

We concluded that provided that tumor resection be complete and with a good safety margin, it is possible to propose that there is not difference in results between the type of maxillectomy performed and the disease-free interval and that without an international standard, the therapeutical decision rely more in personal convictions and results achieved by the researcher groups than in a global consensus.

The conceptual genetic model of calcareous tufa is related with solution of preexisting carbonates in high CO2, presure ground-water. When ground-water reach surface, the fast degassing processes lead to calcite precipitation. Ground-water are considered placed in two different types of acuifer system: Calcium activity in ground-water aS may be expressed by the relation: Values of p1, p2 and p3, constant are, in the case ofa dolomitic aquicer: The rate of precipitation of calcareous tues Tons per year may writte: This equation let us also stablish, the influence on calcareous tufs sedimentation of basinal, climatological and environmental parameters.

Their use may focus to conservation of many present day damaged travertine systems. Estudio de reflectancia enfocado a la cartografia litologica de rocas igneas, efectos de distintos tipos de metamorfismo y analisis estructural en materiales precambricos, basado en datos espectrales de laboratorio e imagenes thematic mapper Macizo Hesperico Central, Prov. The rampant success of quantum theory is the result of applications of the 'new' quantum mechanics of Schrodinger and Heisenberg , the Feynman-Schwinger-Tomonaga Quantum Electro-dynamics , the electro-weak theory of Salaam, Weinberg, and Glashow , and Quantum Chromodynamics ; in fact, this success of 'the' quantum theory has depended on a continuous stream of brilliant and quite disparate mathematical formulations.

In this carefully concealed ferment there lie plenty of unresolved difficulties, simply because in churning out fabulously accurate calculational tools there has been no sensible explanation of all that is going on. It is even argued that such an understanding is nothing to do with physics. A long-standing and famous illustration of this is the paradoxical thought-experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen Fundamental to all quantum theories, and also their paradoxes, is the location of sub-microscopic objects; or, rather, that the specification of such a location is fraught with mathematical inconsistency.

This project encompasses a detailed, critical survey of the tangled history of Position within quantum theories. The first step is to show that, contrary to appearances, canonical quantum mechanics has only a vague notion of locality. After analysing a number of previous attempts at a 'relativistic quantum mechanics', two lines of thought are considered in detail.

The first is the work of Wan and students, which is shown to be no real improvement on the iisu. The second is based on an idea of Dirac's - using backwards-in-time light-cones as the hypersurface in space-time. There remain considerable difficulties in the way of producing a consistent scheme here. To keep things nicely stirred up, the author then proposes his own approach - an adaptation of Feynman's QED propagators. This new approach is distinguished from Feynman's since the propagator or Green's function is not obtained by Feynman's rule.

The type of equation solved is also different: To make the consideration of locality more precise, some results of Fourier transform theory are presented in a form that is directly applicable. Somewhat away from the main thrust of the thesis, there is also an attempt to explain, the manner in which quantum effects disappear as the number of particles increases in such things as experimental realisations of the EPR and de Broglie thought experiments. Nanogaps as "hot spots" with highly localized surface plasmon can generate ultrastrong electromagnetic fields.

Superior to the exterior nanogaps obtained via aggregation and self-assembly, interior nanogaps within Au and Ag nanostructures give stable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering SERS signals. However, the synthesis of nanostructures with interior hot spots is still challenging because of the lack of high-yield strategies and clear design principles. Theoretical analysis of bimetallic nanorod dimer biosensors for label-free molecule detection.

In this work, we theoretically analyze a gold Au core within silver Ag shell Au Ag nanorod dimer biosensor for label-free molecule detection. The incident light on an Au Ag nanorod strongly couples to localized surface plasmon modes, especially around the tip region. The field enhancement around the tip of a nanorod or between the tips of two longitudinally aligned nanorods as in a dimer can be exploited for sensitive detection of biomolecules.

We derive analytical expressions for the interactions of an Au Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light. We also study the detail dynamics of an Au Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light computationally using finite difference time domain FDTD technique when core-shell ratio, relative position of the nanorods, and angle of incidence of light change. We find that the results obtained using the developed analytical model match well with that obtained using FDTD simulations.

Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the Au Ag nanorod dimer, i. Gold-silver-alloy nanoprobes for one-pot multiplex DNA detection. A specific colorimetric DNA detection method based on oligonucleotide functionalized gold-silver-alloy nanoparticles AuAg -alloy-nanoprobes is presented. The AuAg -alloy-nanoprobes were then used for the specific detection of a DNA sequence from TPa gene involved in cancer development. The AuAg -alloy-nanoprobes were then used in combination with Au-nanoprobes for a one-pot dual-colour detection strategy that allowed for the simultaneous differential detection of two distinct target sequences.

This system poses an unprecedented opportunity to explore the combined use of metal nanoparticles with different composition towards the development of a multiplex one-pot colorimetric assay for DNA detection. Interesting optical nonlinearities, trapping effects and spectroscopic enhancements were detected as function of gold concentration in the nanoalloys. In particular a reduction of the limiting threshold was observed by increasing the gold amount.

Finally preliminary studies and prospects for optical and Raman tweezers experiments are discussed. The spontaneous formation and plasmonic properties of ultrathin gold—silver nanorods and nanowires stabilized in oleic acid. Ultrathin Au-Ag alloy nanorods and nanowires of different lengths and ca. The UNRs and UNWs display a length-dependent broad band in the mid-IR region that is related to the longitudinal mode of the surface plasmon resonance of the ultrathin nanostructures.

Gold core silver semishell Janus nanoparticles prepared by interfacial etching. Au Ag core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition of a silver shell onto gold seed colloids followed by the self-assembly of 1-dodecanethiol onto the nanoparticle surface.

The nanoparticles then formed a monolayer on the water surface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough, and part of the silver shell was selectively etched away by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the water subphase, where the etching was limited to the side of the nanoparticles that was in direct contact with water.

The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold cores, as manifested in transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Interestingly, the Au Ag semishell Janus nanoparticles exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to their Au Ag and Ag Au core-shell counterparts, likely due to a synergistic effect between the gold cores and silver semishells that optimized oxygen binding to the nanoparticle surface.

The resulting Janus nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution of silver on the surface of the gold. Neutron activation analysis of gold and prospectiveness of its application. NAA of gold is a method of high sensitivity and high percision, especially when epithermal neutron activation is applied.

NAA is particularly emphasized in the process of gold reference standards preparation. This technque has been successfully used in assessment of micro and fine grained Au-Ag -phlymetal ores in Guixian, Guangxi. Through this example, prospectiveness of NAA application in Au-Ag -prospecting, fast assessment and trace element geochemistry investigation is seen. Application of the Fundamental Parameter Method for X-ray fluorescence analysis of gold jewellery alloys. The Fundamental Parameter Method has been used for the correction of the matrix effects for determination of the fineness of gold in the ternary Au-Ag -Cu yellow jewellery alloys.

A computer code GOLDANA based on this algorithm has been developed for both data taking and on-line determining the fineness of gold jewellery. Only one ternary Au-Ag -Cu standard sample is required. The analysis performance has been tested by measurements conducted on certified gold reference materials, with the use of the fundamental method, could be used for quickly determining the gold concentration in gold jewellery alloys with an acceptable accuracy for the gold jewellery producers. With certificates, from left: The selection committee members, from left: Both have used the entirety of their prizes for educational and humanitarian programmes.

High performance of low cost soft magnetic materials. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires. A common technique to fabricate silicon nanowires is to use metal particles e. As a consequence, the fabricated nanowires contain small concentrations of these metals as impurities. In this work we investigate the effect of the metallic impurit In a program on the development of metal e.

The absorption position of surface plasmon resonance SPR band arising from the embedded metal nanoparticles was Formation of metal-alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere. The formation of binary alloy clusters in sequentially ion-implanted Au-Cu or Au-Ag silica glass has been studied as a function of the annealing atmosphere. Cómo actualizar el software del celular.

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